Today’s selected reading continues in the New Testament epistle of the apostle Paul unto the churches which were in Galatia. More specifically, today’s passage is found in the first ten verses of the sixth chapter. What we find in these ten verses is the beginning of the sixth and final chapter of the epistle which the apostle Paul wrote unto the churches which were in the region of Galatia. This epistle which was written unto churches which had allowed themselves to turn aside unto a different gospel is drawing to a close with the apostle Paul writing unto two distinct groups of people within these churches. On the one hand we find the apostle Paul writing concerning those which are overtaken in a fault, but we also find himself writing concerning those which are spiritual. Within the first verse of this particular chapter we find the apostle speaking unto these churches concerning those among them which are and have been overtaken in a fault, and instructing those which are spiritual to restore such ones in the spirit of meekness. It is absolutely necessary that we recognize and understand these two realities and concepts which were spoken of by the apostle Paul, for the apostle Paul was providing specific instruction to those who are spiritual among the churches to engage themselves in the ministry of reconciliation and restoration. Lest you consider that I am off the mark in making such a statement I would turn and direct your attention to the first word the apostle Paul uses after speaking of that one who was overtaken in a fault, and those who are spiritual. Immediately after writing concerning that man who was overtaken in a fault, the apostle Paul speaks to those who are spiritual and instructs them to “restore” such a one in the spirit of meekness. Please pay close and careful attention to that single word “restore,” for this is in all reality the end result of one who might find themselves overtaken in a fault. I would dare say that we seem to think that judgment, condemnation and criticism are the end result and ultimate outcome of that one who is overtaken in fault, and very seldom do we equate being overtaken in a fault with restoration.
In order to help illustrate this reality and point all the more and even further, I would direct your attention to the words which the apostle Paul wrote in the first and second epistles which he sent unto the saints which were at Corinth. If you turn to the fifth chapter of the first epistle which the apostle Paul wrote unto the saints which were at Corinth you will find the apostle Paul addressing a specific individual within the church who was caught up in a very specific fault and transgression among the saints. Consider if you will the words which the apostle Paul wrote concerning this one who was present among the saints of God within the city of Corinth: “It is reported commonly that there is fornication among you, and such fornication as is not so much as named among the Gentiles, that one should have his father’s wife. And ye are puffed up, and have not rather mourned, that he that hath done this deed might be taken away from among you. For I verily, as absent in body, but present in spirit, have judged already, as though I were present, concerning him that hath so done this deed, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, when ye are gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of our Lord Jesus Christ, to deliver such an one unto Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus. Your glorying is not good. Know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump? Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us: therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth” (1 Corinthians 5:1-8). It is with these words which the apostle Paul addresses the proverbial “elephant in the room” when writing to the saints which were at Corinth, for the apostle Paul neither excuses, nor dismisses the transgression, the immorality, and the iniquity of this individual. You will notice that when writing concerning the response of the church toward this particular individual, the apostle writes how not only were they puffed up, but he also writes how they did not mourn in order that this deed might be taken away from among them.
Please pay close and careful attention to what we read within this particular passage of Scripture, for when we read this passage of Scripture, or one similar to it, we tend to think that the process of restoration within the life of one caught up in a fault does not also come with confrontation. More often than not we think and believe within our hearts that we can have restoration without and apart from confrontation, and the simple truth of the matter is that that isn’t the case at all. In fact, I would dare say that there can be no restoration without and apart from confrontation. With that being said, however, I feel the need to preface this by referencing the words which the apostle Paul wrote in another of his epistles unto the saints which were at Ephesus. Consider if you will the words which the apostle Paul writes in the fourth chapter of this particular epistle unto the Ephesian saints and congregation: “And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers; for the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ: till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ: that we henceforth be no more children, tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the sleight of men, and cunning craftiness, whereby they lie in wait to deceive; BUT SPEAKING THE TRUTH IN LOVE, may grow up into Him in all things, which is the head, even Christ: from whom the whole body fitly joined together and compacted by that which every joint supplieth, according to the effectual working in the measure of every part, maketh increase of the body unto the edifying of itself in love” (Ephesians 4:11-16). Please don’t miss the words which I highlighted within this passage, for the apostle directly connects truth and the speaking of truth with love. When writing unto the saints which were at Ephesus the apostle Paul speaks and writes to them concerning speaking the truth, but doing so in love.
I would be so bold as to state that there are and there have been a number of men and women among us within our churches who have absolutely no qualm or no issue with speaking the truth, yet they are absolutely clueless with how to speak the truth in, and perhaps even with love. With that being said, I feel it is absolutely necessary and imperative to write and declare that speaking your mind is not the same as speaking the truth. We have heard over and over again concerning giving someone a piece of our mind, or even speaking our mind, and yet we must understand and recognize that speaking our m ind is not necessarily speaking the truth. It is possible that we speak our mind, and yet speaking our mind is completely absent the truth. What’s more, is that there are times when we do in fact speak our minds, and yet not only is there no truth contained in what we speak, but neither is there no love whatsoever. When writing to the saints which were at Ephesus the apostle Paul instructed them to “speak the truth in love,” for he knew and understood that it was possible to speak the truth without, apart from and absent love. I am convinced that there have been a number of men and women within the church who have had the truth spoken to them, yet they have heard the truth absent any type and form of love. Did you know that it is possible to speak the truth, and even the truth that is found and contained within the word of God, and yet the truth is not even connected to the love that is found in God the Father, in Jesus Christ the eternal Son, and in the person and presence of the Holy Spirit. Can I be bold and honest and declare that unless you are willing to speak the truth—even the truth that is contained within the word of God—in and with love, that which you are doing is nothing more than beating the sheep up with the truth that is contained within the word of God. Oh how we must recognize and understand that there are countless ministers and leaders within the church who have spoken the truth that is found and contained within the word of God, and yet what they have done with that truth is use it is as a sword to cut people down, as a hammer to pound people to the ground, and even as a sniper riffle to pick people off with the truth. There are ministers who may be say and speaking the right things, yet even though they are speaking the right things they are doing so without, apart from and absent the love of God which is found in the person of Jesus Christ. The apostle Paul knew and recognized the tremendous need to speak the truth, but he also recognized and understood that if we were and if we are going to make any attempt to speak the truth, we must do so in love.
I find it absolutely necessary to write that there are those among us who feel the end of the matter is judgment and condemnation as it pertains to another being caught in an offense or a fault. There are those among us who feel as though instead of reconciliation and restoration for those who have been caught up in an offense and caught up in a fault is nothing short of judgment. I can’t help but be reminded of the words which Jesus our Lord spoke in His famous Sermon on the Mount which were recorded for us by the apostle Matthew. Beginning to read with and from the first verse of the seventh chapter we find the following words spoken by our Lord: “Judge not, that ye be not judged. For with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged: and with measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you again. And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother’s eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye? Or how wilt thou say to thy brother, Let me pull out the mote out of thine eye; and, behold, a beam is in thine own eye? Thou hypocrite, first cast out the beam out of thine own eye; and then that’s thou see clearly to cast out the mote out of thy brother’s eye” (Matthew 7:1-5). Similar words are written and recorded for us by the beloved physician Luke when he writes concerning the life and ministry of Jesus who is the Christ. Consider if you will the words which are found in the sixth chapter of the New Testament book of Luke: “Be ye therefore merciful, as your Father also is merciful. Judge not, and ye shall not be judged: condemn not, and ye shall not be condemned: forgive, and ye shall be forgiven: give, and it shall be given unto you; good measure, pressed down, and shaken together, and running over, shall men give into your bosom. For with the same measure that ye mete withal it shall be measured to you again” (Luke 6:36-38). It is clear from both of these passages that Jesus recognized the tremendous danger that lies in judging those around us—particularly and especially when our judgment of others completely ignores the faults and offenses which are found within our own hearts and lives. It is incredibly easy to judge—and even condemn and criticize—those around us, for by judging those around us we are set free from examining ourselves. In all reality, I am convinced that our judgment of others is nothing more than an emphatic statement and declaration of our unwillingness to examine our own hearts and lives. Let us remember the account of the woman caught in the act of adultery as it is recorded in the eighth chapter of the New Testament gospel of John:
“Jesus went unto the mount of Olives. And early in the morning He came again into the Temple, and all the people came unto Him; and He sat down, and taught them. And the scribes and Pharisees brought unto him a woman taken in adultery; and when they had set her in the midst, they said unto Him, Master, this woman was taken in adultery, in the very act. Now Moses in the law commanded us, that such should be stoned: but what sayest thou? This they said, tempting Him, that they might have to accuse Him. But Jesus stooped down, and with His finger wrote on the ground, as though He heard them not. So when they continued asking Him, He lifted up Himself, and said unto them, He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her. And again He stooped down, and wrote on the ground. And they which heard it, being convicted by their own conscience, went out one by one, beginning at the eldest, even unto the last: and Jesus was left alone, and the woman standing in the midst. When Jesus had lifted up Himself, and saw none by the woman, He said unto her, Woman, where are those thine accusers? Hath no man condemned thee? She said, NO man, Lord. And Jesus said unto her, Neither do I condemn thee: go, and sin no more” (John 8:1-11).
Remember the words which the apostle Paul wrote unto the churches which were in Galatia concerning that one who was overtaken in a fault? Pause for a moment and consider the reality and weight of those words in light of what we read and what we find in this particular passage of Scripture. Within this particular passage of Scripture we find a single woman—not only being overtaken with and by a fault, but also being caught in the act of adultery. What’s important to recognize and understand when reading the account of this particular woman is that not only was this woman “caught” in the act of adultery, but John also records how this woman was taken in adultery. I would dare write and suggest that not only was this woman “caught” in the act of adultery, but this woman was also “taken” from the scene of adultery and immediately rushed into the courts of the Temple. I have always found it incredibly interesting that not only was this woman brought from the scene of adultery into the house of God, but this woman was also brought into the presence of Jesus Himself. It’s absolutely necessary and imperative that we pay close attention to what is found in this passage of Scripture, for when the Pharisees and scribes brought this woman into the presence of Jesus and into the house of God in Jerusalem, they did so—not only to cast stones at her according to the law, but also to bring Jesus to the point and place where He too would join in their judgment and condemnation. Would you be surprised if I told you that Jesus doesn’t join in with your judgment? Would you be surprised if I told you that Jesus doesn’t join in with your condemnation? Would you be offended if I told you that Jesus doesn’t join in with your criticism? The scribes and Pharisees brought this woman who had been caught in the act of adultery into the presence of Jesus—perhaps first to find reason to accuse Him, but also to see if He would join in and join together with their condemnation, accusation and judgment. JESUS DOESN’T JOIN IN WITH YOUR JUDGMENT! How utterly and completely shocked were these scribes and Pharisees, for not only did Jesus not agree with their assessment of this woman, but He also didn’t pick up a stone as they had all done.
What a powerful picture we find here, for there is something that isn’t directly implied within this passage of Scripture. As you read this passage of Scripture you will find that the scribes and Pharisees sought to stone this woman. There is not a doubt in my mind that there were those present among the scribes and Pharisees who already had stones in their hands—perhaps stones they had picked up along the way, or perhaps stones which they had stooped down and picked up in the court of the Temple. Pause for a moment and consider what this woman might have felt when she watched as Jesus began to stoop down to the ground. Consider the utter shock and horror that might very well have gripped and consumed her heart and soul as she saw Jesus bend Himself down toward the ground. I would imagine that when this woman saw Jesus stooping down to the ground she immediately and automatically thought that Jesus was stooping down to join in their judgment, and join in their condemnation. There is not a doubt in my mind that this woman saw and watched as Jesus stooped down to the ground and thought for sure He would pick up a stone with which to cast at her. It is absolutely imperative that we recognize and understand that not only did Jesus never cast a stone at this woman, but neither did He pick up a stone and even hold it in His hand. It would have been something if Jesus had stooped down to the earth and picked up a stone, and held it in His hand as an object lesson for this woman, and even for the scribes and the Pharisees, but that wasn’t at all what took place. If you read and study the gospel accounts of the life and ministry of Jesus you will never find Him taking a single stone into His hand—not to transform and change stones into bread, nor even to take and cast the stones in judgment and condemnation at and against another. I absolutely love that whereas this woman saw the scribes and Pharisees stooping down to the ground to pick up their stones to cast at her—when she saw Jesus stoop to the ground, she was within herself completely shocked to find that He picked up no stone. I am convinced that Jesus’ writing in the dirt on this particular occasion was a powerful testament and testimony to His unwillingness to join in their judgment and their condemnation. How absolutely powerful and incredible it is to read and consider that instead of stooping down to the ground to pick up a stone with which to cast at this woman, Jesus instead stooped down to the ground and wrote in this woman’s dirt.
You will recall that in the Old Testament book of Exodus—while Moses was atop Horeb in the wilderness of Sinai—the Lord Himself wrote on tablets made of stone the law which these scribes and Pharisees sought to condemn and accuse this woman with. It was with His finger the Lord wrote the law of Moses which was given unto the house of Israel—a law which they would adhere to and obey throughout centuries. WRITING THE LAW OF CHRIST IN THE DIRT! WRITING THE LAW OF MOSES ON STONES! If you read the writings of the apostle Paul unto the churches you will find him writing concerning a new law—one that was completely separate from the law of Moses which had been written with and by the finger of God upon tablets of stone atop Horeb. In fact, I would dare say that the stones which these scribes and Pharisees sought to stone this woman with were directly connected to the law of Moses, for the stones of the law were directly connected to the stones of judgment and condemnation. The scribes and the Pharisees sought to stone this woman with the very substance the law of Moses which she had broken and violated was written upon. STONE BEGETS STONE! It would have been very easy for Jesus to have picked up a stone from the dirt around Him and cast the first stone at this woman, yet even when He stooped down to the ground and began to write in the dirt with His finger, He seemed to be ignoring the law which had been written on tablets of stone. It’s important to recognize that Jesus came not to abolish the law, but to fulfill the law. There are a number of men and women who think that Jesus came to abolish the law of Moses that was given with great glory centuries earlier unto their ancestors, yet Jesus Himself declared that He did not come to abolish the law, but rather to fulfill it. How did Jesus fulfill the law of Moses? How would Jesus fulfill the law of Moses? How could Jesus fulfill the law of Moses? I am convinced the answer lies in the fulness of the reality of the law of Christ—a new law which did not replace the original law of Moses, but replaced that law. When considering and comparing the law of Moses versus the law of Christ, we must recognize that the law of Christ takes the Ten Commandments, and summarizes them in two single commands—“Love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength” and “Love your neighbor as yourself.”
WRITING THE LAW OF CHRIST IN YOUR DIRT! Please don’t miss the tremendous reality and importance of this, for when writing the law of Moses atop Horeb in the wilderness, the Lord wrote that law upon tablets of stone. When writing the law of Christ—not only did Christ write that law in the dirt of the earth, but the Lord also wrote that law in the same substance from which we were created and formed. If you read the Old Testament book of Genesis you will find the following words concerning the creation and formation of Adam: “And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into His. Nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul” (Genesis 2:7). In the Old Testament book of Genesis we find Adam being formed from the dust of the ground, and in the New Testament gospel of John we find Jesus writing a new law in and from the same dust of the ground. Wouldn’t it be incredibly just like God to form Adam from the dust of the ground, and when Jesus stooped down to the ground to write in the dirt thereof, He actually wrote in the very same place where Adam was formed from the dust of the ground? Although there is no Scriptural support or evidence that this is in fact true, it nonetheless brings us face to face with a tremendous and powerful reality—namely, that Jesus the Christ wrote a new law in the very substance that we were created from. Instead of picking up stones from the dirt of the ground to cast at this woman—stones which represented and were directly connect to the law of Moses—Jesus instead wrote in the ground a new law which would completely transcend that which was given atop Horeb in the wilderness of Sinai. Remember the words which John wrote in the first chapter of the gospel account of the life and ministry of Jesus Christ in the first chapter of the gospel: “For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ” (John 1:17). John was very clear that the law was given by Moses, but when Jesus Christ came to the earth—grace and truth came by Him. I believe that this is what we find present within this eighth chapter of the same New Testament book, for whereas the scribes and Pharisees sought to judge and condemn this woman according to the law of Moses, Jesus sought to release grace and truth within the life of this woman. I am absolutely and thoroughly convinced that on this particular occasion—instead of picking up stones with which to cast at this woman, Jesus instead sought to write a new law of grace and truth into this woman’s life. In all reality, Jesus wasn’t concerned with judgment and condemnation within the life of this woman, for He was concerned with reconciliation and restoration.
Oh please don’t miss the tremendous importance of this reality, for when we read the first verse of the sixth chapter of the epistle which the apostle Paul wrote unto the churches which were in Galatia we find him speaking of bringing restoration into the hearts and lives of those who were and have been caught in offense. There have been a number of men and women who have believed the lie and the deception that judgment and condemnation are to be the direct result and outcome for offense and fault, and they have absolutely no place for reconciliation and restoration. This is true—not only when they themselves have been wronged and offended, but also when they observe another being caught in an offense and fault. I can’t help but be reminded of the words which the apostle Paul wrote in the second epistle which was sent unto the saints which were at Corinth. Beginning with the fourteenth verse of the fifth chapter we read and find the following words: “For the love of Christ constraineth us; because we thus judge, that if one died for all, then were all dead: and that He died for all, that they which live should not henceforth live unto themselves, but unto Him which died for them, and rose again. Wherefore henceforth we know no man after the flesh: yea, though we have known Christ after the flesh, yet now henceforth know we Him no more. Therefore if any man be in Christ, He is a new creature: old things are passed away; behold, all things are become new. And all things are of God, who hath reconciled us to Himself by Jesus Christ, and hath given to us the ministry of reconciliation; to wit, that God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto Himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them; and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation. Now then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech you by us: we pray you in Christ’s stead, be ye reconciled to God” (2 Corinthians 5:14-2). It is quite clear from the words of the apostle Paul in the second epistle which was written unto the saints which were at Corinth, as well as the words which the apostle Paul writes in his epistle unto the churches which were in Galatia that we have not only been called to a ministry of reconciliation, but also the ministry of restoration. It is absolutely necessary that we recognize and understand that the ultimate and end result of another being caught up in a fault or an offense is restoration and reconciliation. The question we must ask ourselves is whether or not we have any room in our hearts and any room in our spirits for the restoration and reconciliation of those who have been caught or are presently caught and overtaken in a fault. This woman who was brought into the company and presence of Jesus was clearly caught and overtaken in a fault, and yet Jesus’ main concern was her restoration and reconciliation.
What’s worth noting and mentioning in this passage of Scripture is that the apostle Paul wrote that those who were spiritual should be the ones who restore such ones who were overtaken in faults. I do not believe it is any coincidence that the apostle Paul writes and uses these words, for in the second half of the first verse we find the true mark of one who is indeed spiritual. In the second part of the first verse we read of those who are spiritual they they consider themselves, lest they themselves be tempted. What’s more, is that in the second verse of this passage the apostle Paul writes unto the churches that they are to bear one another’s burdens and in so doing would fulfill the law of Christ. Furthermore, the apostle Paul goes on to write how that one who thinks himself to be something when in all reality he is nothing, he deceives himself. What is the true mark of spirituality found within this passage of Scripture? The apostle Paul speaks of those who are spiritual as being those who are able to restore that one overtaken in a fault in the spirit of meekness, and then he goes on to describe the true mark of that spirituality—namely carefully examining oneself lest we ourselves be tempted. It would be very easy for us to read this passage and think that being spiritual has something to do with gifts, or something along those lines, and yet I am convinced that this couldn’t be the furthest from the truth. I am convinced that if you want to truly understand what this spirituality looks like, you need look no further than the words which the apostle Paul wrote in the second chapter of the epistle which he wrote unto the saints which were at Philippi: “IF there be therefore any consolation in Christ, if any comfort of love, if any fellowship of the Spirit, if any bowels and mercies, fulfil ye my joy, that ye be like-minded, having the same love, being of one accord, of one mind. Let nothing be done through strife or vainglory; but in lowliness of mind let each esteem other better than themselves. Look not every man on his own things, but every man also on the things of others. Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus: who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: but made Himself of no reputation, and took upon Him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men: and being found in fashion as a man, He humbled Himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross” (Philippians 2:1-8). These words are further echoed in the fifteenth chapter of the epistle which the apostle Paul wrote unto the saints which were at Rome: “We then that are strong ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to please ourselves. Let every one of us please His neighbor for his good to edification. For even Christ pleased not Himself; but, as it was written, The reproaches of them that reproached thee fell on me. For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, that we though patience and comfort of the Scriptures. Might have hope. Now the God of patience and consolation grant you to be like-minded one toward another according to Christ Jesus: that ye may with one mind and one mouth glorify God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. Wherefore receive ye one another, as Christ also received us to the glory of God” (Romans 15:1-7).
It is clear from the words we read and find in this passage of Scripture that we can only truly be a minister of reconciliation and restoration when we are able to live and from that place where we esteem others better than ourselves. What’s more, is that we must not think more highly of ourselves than we ought, and so as a result deceive ourselves. The apostle Paul writes and speaks of those who are spiritual and says that it is those who are spiritual which should restore the ones who are overtaken in a fault in the spirit of meekness. Please don’t miss or lose sight of the tremendous weight and reality of the words which are found and recorded in this passage of Scripture, for that one is spiritual—not in how well they can judge, condemn and criticize another, but in how well they can examine themselves, be mindful of themselves and be aware of themselves enough to know that they too can be overtaken in and with a fault at any point in time. I would like to leave you with the words which the apostle Paul wrote in the tenth chapter of the second epistle which he wrote unto the saints which were at Corinth. Beginning with the eleventh verse of the tenth chapter we find and read the following words: “Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples: and they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come. Wherefore let him that thin Keith he standeth take heed lest he fall. There hath no temptation taken you but such as is common to man: but God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able: but will with the temptation also make a way to escape, that ye may be able to bear it. Wherefore, my dearly beloved, flee from idolatry. I speak as to wise men; judge ye what I say” (2 Corinthians 10:11-15). A true mark of spirituality and one being spiritual is not in how well one is able to quickly judge and condemn another, but rather, in how well one is able to restore and reconcile another—not only restore and reconcile them to the Lord their God, but also restore and reconcile them to others, and even to themselves. A true mark of spirituality is how well you are able to reconcile and restore another who is caught in a fault or offense—even when the offense and fault is and was committed against you. I commit to you the words which Jesus spoke in the eighteenth chapter of the New Testament gospel of Matthew:
“Moreover if thy brother shall trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault between thee and him alone: if he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother. But if he will not hear thee, then take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established. And if he shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church: but if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican. Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind one earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. Again I say unto you, That if two of you shall agree on earth as touching any thing that they shall ask it shall be done for them of my Father which is in heaven. For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them. Then came Peter to Him, and said, Lord, how oft shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? Till seven times? Jesus saith unto him, I say unto unto thee, Until seven times: but, Until seventy times seven” (Matthew 18:15-22).